We know that all the types of cancer are so malignant that they directly affect the immune system of the body and make them worse. One of those cancers in bone cancer that is fatal to health.

Bone Cancer is an uncommon and malignant tumor of the bone that affects and destroys other normal bone tissues. It occurs when a tumor, or an abnormal mass of tissue forms in a bone. It can be malignant as well as benign. It could begin in any part of the body, but mostly affects the long bones that make the arms and legs. Both benign and malignant may grow and damage healthy tissues of bone but the difference is that benign ones do not spread whereas a malignant one move to other parts of the body and destroy other cells as well. Various types of bone cancer occur. Some take place mainly in children while others in adults.

Bone Cancer

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Different Types of Bone Cancer:

The most serious of all the cancers are Bone Cancer. They grow directly in bones or surrounding tissues, called as cartilage.

Sometimes, cancer can also grow from other parts of your bone to the bones which are called Secondary Bone Cancer.

Types of cancer may include:

  • Chondrosarcoma: It begins in the cartilaginous tissue that is often considered as flexible and tough. It mostly occurs in the pelvic area, upper leg or shoulder. It forms in the subchondral tissue that is the connective tissue of the bones.
  • Osteosarcoma: It starts mostly in children in the bone cells. It usually takes place in knee and arms. It has the tendency to originate at the ends of the long bones in arms and lengths and affects the hard tissue.
  • Ewing's Sarcoma: Usually it occurs in bones but then it occurs in soft tissues like muscle, fat, blood vessels etc. It commons arises in pelvis, legs, arms.

What are the main causes of Bone Cancer?

There is still not a clear cause, but doctors commonly believe that cancer begins when there is an error in the cell’s DNA. The cells start growing in an uncontrolled order. They further form a mass of tumor that spread to other parts of the body as well causing damage to them.

What are the symptoms?

The signs of bone cancer may include

  • Swelling
  • Fatigue
  • Broken bone
  • Weight Loss

Risk Factors:

There are some risks that are associated with the increased risks of cancer:

  • Radiation Therapy: Continuous exposure to a large amount of radiation therapy may increase the chances of the person having bone cancer as well.
  • Having family history especially of bone cancer.
  • Paget's disease which is a condition that causes bones to break down and grow back abnormally.

Diagnosis:

There are various ways in which you can get the diagnosis. But, before that also first the patient’s past treatments, as well as family history need to be known by the doctor. After getting all the oral information, diagnosis is done.

1. X-Rays:It clearly shows the location, shape as well as the size of the tumor. If an abnormal tumor is detected in the part of the bone, further imaging test are conducted to confirm the severity of the situation.

  • Bone Scan: It is a kind of test in which some element is injected in the bones and travels through the bloodstream. Scanner collects it from the bones and checks it.
  • CT Scan: It helps in getting the detailed view of the bone’s structure. In-depth pictures are taken from different angles in bones and then observed and confirmed.

2. Biopsy: It is one of the main tests that are done by the doctors. In this, a small sample of tissue is analyzed to diagnose cancer. In two ways, the biopsy can be done. One may be needle biopsy and other is an incisional biopsy. In a needle biopsy, a small hole in made in the bone and a sample of tissue is taken with a needle-like instrument for diagnosing. This is not the case in incisional one. Here, a piece of tumor is cut down and then it is observed to show how malignant the tumor is.

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Treatments:

The options for treatment depend on the size, location, type of tumor. The age and general health history also play a major role in further treatment. Various treatments are available like:

  • Surgery: It is one of the common treatments available for cancer. It involves the special techniques to entirely remove the cancerous tumor along with some healthy tissues surrounding it. Some patients also undergo limb-sparing surgery to improve the functioning of the limb.
  • Chemotherapy: It uses some high dose drugs to kills the cells of cancer. This treatment is also sometimes carried out after surgery is performed that kill some cancerous cells that were unable to get destroyed while surgery.
  • Radiation Therapy: This involves the use of high x-rays to kill the cancer cells. This treatment may also be used with surgery so as to destroy the tumor more effectively.


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