Diabetes is a lifelong condition in which the sugar level of the body goes too high than the normal sugar level. It is a metabolic disorder that includes symptoms such as frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger etc.. It is considered as a serious disease and if it is left untreated, it can lead to many complications in the future. Diabetes is a disease that is associated with many other diseases as well such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke etc..
Diabetes is of two types
Diabetes Type 1- It is a condition in which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin.
Diabetes Type 2- It is a condition in which cells fail to respond to the insulin properly and as the condition increases, lack of insulin can also develop.
Diabetes is also associated with many skin diseases and an increased sugar level of the body can be the main cause of such diseases.
1. Necrobiosis Lipoidica
Necrobiosis lipoidica is a skin condition that usually occurs in a people suffering from diabetes. Skin and legs are the most attacked areas but it can also occur on forearms, hands, trunks and sometimes it can also occur in nipple and penis. Under this condition, the center of an affected area usually has a yellowish tint whereas the area surrounding to it turns into dark pink. This disease is also known as necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum. Majority of people who suffer from this disease are mostly women. Bruised appearance or erythema is seen as the first symptom of necrobiosis lipoidica. The exact cause of this disease is not yet known but it is considered as an inflammatory disorder that is characterized by collagen degeneration which is combined with a granulomatous response.
2. Bullosis diabeticorum
Bullosis diabeticorum is also known as diabetic bulla and it is a condition which is common among diabetic patients. It is characterized as a spontaneous, distinct and non-inflammatory blistering condition of the skin. It often occurs at feet, toes, hands, fingers, ears or nose. These blisters are usually painless and contain clear fluid. It can develop overnight without any symptoms but in some cases, people experience burning sensations. Majority of patients with bullosis diabeticorum are also associated with nephropathy and neuropathy. Many studies believe that bullosis diabeticorum can be a sign of an underlying impaired glycaemic control.
3. Eruptive Xanthomatosis
Eruptive Xanthomatosis is a disease that occurs due to the poor control of sugar level in the body and when the level of triglycerides are too high. Triglycerides are a type of fat in the body that arises from the food that is high in sugar such as candies. Eruptive xanthomatosis is characterized as small bumps that are reddish yellow in color and itching, tenderness are some of the symptoms of this skin disease. It usually appears on the buttocks, shoulder and above the muscles that helps you move the joints. Sometimes, in the rare cases it can also appear in the mouth. When one suffers from this condition doctors recommends a strict low fat diet with minimal fibrates and nicotinic acid.
4. Acanthosis nigricans
Acanthosis nigricans is a skin disorder that is mostly associated with insulin resistant diabetes, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary disease and acromegaly. It is a skin condition that is usually found on the folds of neck, armpits, navel, forehead and other areas. Acanthosis nigricans is divided into two forms and that are benign and malignant. Benign includes symptoms related to obesity, hereditary, and endocrine forms of acanthosis nigricans. Malignant includes symptoms related to insulin like activity and tumor factors. This disease is characterized as thick, velvety and relatively darker areas in the skin folds. Acanthosis nigricans is of five types
1. Familial acanthosis
2. Endocrine acanthosis
3. Obesity and pseudoacanthosis nigricans
4. Drug related acanthosis
5. Malignancy acanthosis
5. Diabetic Dermopathy
Diabetic dermopathy is a skin disorder that is also known as shin spots and this disease is usually seen in a people suffering from diabetes mellitus. It is characterized as dull red papules that are small, round and usually appears on the shin. Such lesions can also appear on a non-diabetic person but more than four lesions strongly suggest diabetes. Diabetic dermopathy is more common among patients who are older than 50 years and those who are suffering from diabetes for a longer duration. Also, it is more seen among males as compared to females.
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