Reproductive health can be defined as an ability to have a satisfying and safe sex life and capable enough to produce. The prevalence of diseases related to the women’s reproductive health is increasing rapidly and every year millions of women are suffering from different reproductive health issues. Some of the diseases that are quite common among women include:
1. Uterine Fibroids
Uterine fibroids are non-cancerous tumors of the uterus and most women develop one or more uterine fibroids during their reproductive lifespan. It can occur at any age but it is most common in women aged 30-40 years. The location, size, and shape of the fibroids greatly vary from person to person as fibroid range in size from very small to very large. Fibroids may cause no symptoms at all but some of the common symptoms of uterine fibroids include heavy menstrual periods, vaginal bleeding, anemia, pain in the abdomen or lower back, frequent urination or constipation, miscarriages, enlarged uterus, and infertility. The location of the fibroids is the main factor that determines the problems related to it. The location is classified as:
Intramural fibroids - These are the most common type of fibroids and these fibroids are located within the muscular wall of the uterus.
Subserosal fibroids - These fibroids are located on the surface of the uterus and when the fibroids grow out from the surface but remain attached from a tissue, it is known as pedunculated fibroids.
Submucosal fibroids - These fibroids are located under the lining of the uterine cavity. These are quite serious and even a small lesion in this location can cause bleeding and lead to infertility.
Cervical fibroids - These fibroids are located in the wall of the cervix.
Endometriosis is a condition which is defined as a presence of endometrial like tissue which is found outside the uterus and causes inflammation. Mostly, this condition is found in women aged between 30-40. Chronic pelvic pain and infertility are the most commonly experienced symptoms of endometriosis and the pain during bowel movement and during urination may also occur. Most of the women who suffer from endometriosis also suffer infertility as an inflammation from endometriosis can result in the damage of the sperm or causes interference in their movement through the fallopian tube. In the severe cases of endometriosis, there can be a blockage of the fallopian tube. Other than the pelvic pain and infertility, some of the symptoms that are experienced by women having endometriosis include:
- Heavy bleeding
- Lower abdominal pain
- Nausea and Vomiting
- Inguinal pain
Endometriosis is a long term condition that affects women of all ages during their reproductive years and according to the studies, millions of women in the UK are having endometriosis. The exact cause of this disease is not clear but it is believed that both genetics and environmental factors could be the cause of this disease.
3. Interstitial Cystitis
Interstitial cystitis is a chronic condition that results in the pain in the bladder and the area that surrounds the pelvis region. It is also known as bladder pain syndrome and it severy affects the quality of life of a sufferer. Though this disease can affect men as well but the total number of cases of this disease suffered by women are high in number. According to the researchers, in the United States, more than one million women are suffering from interstitial cystitis. It can affect women at any age but usually, women who are in 40’s are attacked. The symptoms of interstitial cystitis vary from person to person and it depends on the severity of the condition. The symptoms may include discomfort, urgent and frequent need to urinate, pain during vaginal intercourse. The severity of the symptoms may worsen in women during menstruation period. In interstitial cystitis, the bladder wall may become stiff and irritated. Some people with this disease experience patches of broken skin on the bladder wall and some feels that their bladder cannot hold much urine that increases the frequency of urination. Also, in the most severe cases, people may urinate for around 60 times a day that includes night time urination.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS is the most common ovarian disorder in women that results from the excess androgen level. It is a complex hormonal condition that involves several symptoms like irregular menstrual periods, infertility, obesity, excess hair growth on the face, chest and other parts of the body, acne, patches, oily skin and many more symptoms. Androgens are also known as male hormones and the primary androgen is testosterone. Both men and women but all women produce a small amount of androgens in the ovaries and adrenal glands. Women having polycystic ovary syndrome have higher than the normal level of testosterone and it is linked with many symptoms that occur in this disease. Also, people having PCOS have the high level of insulin as the body of people suffering from PCOS does not respond to the insulin and as a result, the glucose level in the blood becomes high. Though there is no cure for PCOS but still one can manage the symptoms of this disease and this can be done by maintaining weight, taking prescribed medicines on time, and eating healthy food.