Tadalafil is a oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor which is recommended as one of the best therapy for erectile dysfunction due to its effectiveness and low rate side effects. Not only erectile dysfunction, tadalafil is recommended dose to treat other sexual problems as well. Under the name of Cialis, tadalafil is marketed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. And under the name of Adcirca, tadalafil is marketed for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The working of tadalafil is similar to other medicines that are used to treat erectile dysfunction but they have different chemical structures and pharmacological properties. One pharmacological property of tadalafil is that the absorption and pharmacodynamic properties of this drug are not affected by food. In contrast the efficacy of other PDE5 inhibitors can be reduced by fatty food, hence delay in absorption and reduced peak serum concentration.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the effect of tadalafil is more effective in PDE5 than any other phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. PDE5 is found in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, vascular and visceral smooth muscle, kidney, lungs, platelets, pancreas, and cerebellum.
Erectile dysfunction is a condition in which a man cannot get or keep an erection firm enough to have satisfying sexual intercourse. Under three conditions, a man is said to be suffering from erectile dysfunction - Man gets an erection sometimes but not every time, An erection is attained but did not last long enough sexual activity, lastly, unable to get an erection at all.
There are many factors that play a role in the erectile function and impairment in any factor can cause erectile dysfunction. Hormonal, neurological, psychological and vascular factors play an important role in attaining penile erection during sexual activity. An erection begins with stimulation that can be mental, sensory or both. When the brain senses sexual urge, it sends an impulse to the nerves of the penis and causes the muscles of the corpora muscles to relax. The blood flows in the arteries and creates pressure in the corpora cavernosa and expand the penis. The blood is trapped in the tissue and sustains an erection. This response is mediated by the release of nitric oxide and the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in smooth muscle cells. Tadalafil enhances the erectile function by inhibiting phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor and stops the degradation of cGMP. cGMP plays an important role in the erectile function and tadalafil increases the amount of cGMP.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a condition that occurs from increased pulmonary vascular resistance that results from the loss of vascular luminal cross section. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is considered as endothelial dysfunction which affects the small pulmonary arteries. It is characterized by various arterial abnormalities that include medial hypertrophy, adventitial proliferation, and plexiform arteriopathy. It is a condition of high blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood from the heart to the lungs. Tadalafil has shown clinical benefits in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and it slows the progression of this disease, prevents blood clots, and improves the symptoms of this disease. Tadalafil reduces the production of phosphodiesterase type 5 in the lungs and other parts of the body as PDE5 affects the functioning of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. cGMP plays a vital role in the relaxation and widening of arteries.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is defined as a rapid increase in the prostatic stromal cells that leads to an enlarged prostate gland. This condition occurs in the periurethral and transition zones of the prostatic gland and it is one of the highly common sexual problems in the male ageing population. Tadalafil has been shown to reduce the symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia and is an approved drug to treat patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. It helps in reducing the size of the prostate and also reduces future urinary retention. Tadalafil also shows its effect on the endothelial cell proliferation, smooth muscle relaxation, activities on the prostatic efferent nerves and improves the blood flow.