Hormones are the substance that acts at a cellular level to start, stop or create fluctuations in the cellular process. There are many members of the molecules that are synthesized in the glands and secreted into the bloodstream. They are then transported to different parts of the body. The production of hormones are important for the functioning of the human body systems but fluctuations in the level of the hormones can also affect the normal functioning of the systems. Sexual dysfunction has become common in recent years and there are many reasons that develop the disorders.
Hormonal changes are one of the causes of sexual problems and some of the important hormones that play an important role in the sexual functioning of the males include:
Estradiol is an estrogen steroid hormone and the effect of estradiol in the male reproductive system is complex. Though estradiol is known as a major female sex hormone, it also plays an important role in the male’s sexual function. Estradiol is important to control the functioning of libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis. In the libido, estradiol has a direct effect on the brain and in the brain, it increases the synthesis in the areas that are related to the sexual arousal. The functioning of the erectile system requires a combination of nerves, vessels and the endocrine system. Also, smooth muscle and endothelium cells are essential for the proper functioning of the erectile system and impairment in any of these can affect the erectile function.
Testosterone is the main male sex hormone that is responsible for the development of male reproductive organs. Testosterone is the most important androgen in men and it is vital for normal reproduction and sexual activity. Testes are egg-shaped glands that make sperm and testosterone. Testosterone is important for the physical changes that happen during the puberty and enhances the normal growth of parts such as penis, beards, bones, and muscles. It also improves mood and sex drive. Deficiency of testosterone is said to be one of the main reasons for problems in erectile function and it leads to the development of erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is a persistent inability to attain and maintain satisfying erections. Also, symptoms such as low energy level, poor concentration, reduced muscle strengths and lack of interest in sex can be due to the lack of testosterone.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone that is released in response to the stress and blood glucose concentration and problems with sexual functionality has always been related to the stress. Sexual dysfunction in men is highly correlated with both stress and diabetes. Diabetes is a condition in which the blood glucose level of the body goes too high to such an extent that it starts affecting the health of the person. High level of cortisol causes insulin resistance and in diabetic patients, it can cause complications. According to the studies, the high glucose level in the body leads to the development of erectile dysfunction as the excessive sugar level damages the nerves and the blood vessels. This further affects the blood flow in the penis region and proper blood flow is highly important to attain the penile erection.
Thyroxine is the hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland and fluctuations in the level of the hormone thyroxine cause health problems. When the thyroid gland produces the hormone thyroxine in excess, it is known as hyperthyroidism. And when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroxine, it is known as underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism. Numerous studies suggest that thyroid problems are correlated with sexual disorders in men. It can be a cause of erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation, and low libido. Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can lead to the development of any sexual dysfunction. Also, it has been witnessed that the symptoms of erectile dysfunction were improved with the treatment of thyroid disorder. Most of the patients having hyperthyroidism are more likely to be suffering from premature ejaculation as well.
Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the paraventricular nucleus and is released by the posterior pituitary. This hormone plays an important role in the sexual functioning of both, males and females. As per many studies, oxytocin plays endocrine and paracrine roles in the male reproductive system. Oxytocin levels increase the human sexual response and enhance the smooth muscle contractions that occur during ejaculation. It has beneficial effects on different components of sexuality and its positive impacts on the sexual function are seen on libido, orgasm and erectile function.