All You Need To Know About Menstrual Problems

The menstrual cycle is defined as a series of events that prepares a woman’s body for pregnancy. This occurs monthly during the woman’s reproductive years, i.e. from puberty to menopause. The menstrual cycle is counted from the first day of menstruation up to the first day of the next cycle.

In medical terms, the menstrual cycle is defined as a cycle of the natural changes that are caused in the uterus and ovaries. It is vital for reproduction. Each menstrual cycle can be divided into three stages, and it depends on the ovaries or uterus.

 About Menstrual Problems

The Uterine cycle is divided into:

  • Menstruation phase
  • Proliferative phase
  • Secretory phase

The ovarian cycle is divided into:

  • Follicular phase
  • Ovulation
  • Luteal phase

Normally, the menstrual period lasts for three to seven days, and the amount of blood lost can vary greatly from one woman to another. When a female gets her first periods, it is known as menarche and when a woman stops having periods, it is known as menopause.

Many times, women experience problems with the menstrual cycle, and there are a wide variety of issues that can occur with the menstrual cycle. Some of them are:

1. Amenorrhoea

In medical terms, amenorrhoea is a condition when a woman has no periods and it occurs due to the absence of menses in a woman of reproductive age. Amenorrhoea is divided into two types:

  • Primary Amenorrhoea - It is a condition in which women have never had a period. It is a rare type and it usually results from genetics or physical abnormality.
  • Secondary Amenorrhoea - It is a condition in which a woman has had periods in the past but has now stopped. It is an absence of periods for at least three months. Pregnancy is known to be the most common cause of this type of amenorrhoea and if a woman is not pregnant, it can be due to some hormonal disturbances.

When the periods do not stop completely, but it occurs with long spaces of time in between them, this condition is known as oligomenorrhea.

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2. Dysmenorrhoea

In medical terms, dysmenorrhoea is a term which is used for painful periods. Dysmenorrhoea consists of two types:

  • Primary Dysmenorrhoea - It is a condition of painful periods which is not due to significant gynecological pathology. It usually appears for the first time in six to twelve months after menarche.
  • Secondary Dysmenorrhoea - It is a condition of painful periods which results from pelvic affection and it appears several years after menarche. The pain in a woman with this condition lasts more during the menstruation.

3. Heavy menstrual bleeding

Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common problem and it is defined as a condition in which there is an excessive loss of menstrual blood and to such an extent that it interferes with the physical, psychological and emotional well being. Bleeding that lasts for more than seven days is the main characteristic of heavy menstrual bleeding. There many factors that can cause heavy menstrual bleeding such as hormonal changes, hormonal imbalance, endometriosis, and uterine growths such as polyps and fibroids. Heavy menstrual bleeding is defined as a medical problem and the treatment of this condition depends on the cause of it.

4. Abnormal vaginal bleeding

Abnormal vaginal bleeding occurs between menstrual cycle, after sexual intercourse or after menopause. Abnormal vaginal bleeding is abnormals, means having menstrual periods that are comparatively heavier and lasts for than usual or last for more than seven days. There can be various causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding such as fibroids, endometrial polyps, an infection of the uterus, pregnancy, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and cancers of the uterus including endometrial and cervical cancer.

5. Premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder which is characterized by the emotional and physical symptoms that consistently occurs during the menstrual cycle. Studies suggest that premenstrual syndrome affect millions of women during their reproductive years. Some of the emotional symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome include depression, irritability, anxiety, confusion, insomnia, problems with concentration and changes in sexual desire. There are many mechanisms that can contribute to the development of the premenstrual syndrome. One such mechanism includes disorder that is related to enhanced sensitivity to progesterone in women along with serotonin deficiency.

When to see a doctor??

Many times, we women experience some problems with the menstrual cycle but we fail to understand when we should consult a doctor. Some cases under which you should consult a doctor include:

  • When you have gone months without periods and you are not pregnant or in menopause.
  • You get irregular periods very often.
  • You have menstrual pain that doesn’t get better with medicine.
  • You have bleeding after sex
  • You feel very weak during or after menstruation
  • Chest pain or trouble breathing during or after menstruation.  

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