Role Of Calcium And Vitamin D To Maintain Bone Health


The musculoskeletal system of the human body is an important organ that allows the human to move using their muscular and skeletal systems. It is made up of the muscles, bones of the skeleton, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and joints and it provides structure, support, stability, and movement to the body. The skeletal system is the system of bones, cartilages, and joints in the human body. It together forms a skeletal system. Joints play an important role in the human body as it allows an individual to have different types of movement at different locations. Bones are made up of a mixture of magnesium, calcium and other minerals. The human skeletal is categorized into axial skeletal (80 bones) and the appendicular skeletal (126 bones).


  • Axial skeletal - It is formed by the vertebral column (26 bones), the rib cage (25 bones), the skull (28 bones) and other associated bone (1 bone).
  • Appendicular skeletal - It is attached to the axial skeletal and is formed by the shoulder girdle (4 bones), the pelvic girdle (2 bones) and the bones of the upper limb (60 bones) and lower limb (60 bones).

Healthy bones are vital to have a quality of life. According to the research, almost ten million Americans over the age of fifty have osteoporosis and another 34 million have low bone mass. Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone disorder which is characterized by low bone density, weak and brittle bones. The bones of people having osteoporosis are very weak, to such an extent that it causes a fracture, following a minor fall. No matter what’s your age, healthy bones are important.

It is believed that calcium and vitamin D are most important to promote bone strength and to maintain normal nutritional status at different stages of life. Vitamin D and calcium are most important but other than these, magnesium, phosphorus, and fluoride are also important for bone health.

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Calcium is considered to be the major building block of the bone tissues as calcium in the bones acts as a reservoir for maintaining calcium level in the blood, which is important for the functioning of muscles and healthy nerves. Bone is a complex tissue that consists of a type of collagen which is strengthened by calcium. In the human body, 99% of calcium is deposited in bones and teeth. Normally, we lose some amount of calcium each day, through the skin, nails, sweat, urine, and feces. Therefore, an adequate intake of calcium through diet is important to maintain the level of calcium in the body.

Lack of calcium in the body can result in the loss of bone structure and strength. An adequate amount of calcium intake helps in maintaining the optimal level of serum ionized calcium. Calcium is needed for bones in order to grow to a maximum density by the age of 20–30 and also to maintain bone density as an individual ages.

Rich sources of calcium?


Here is the list of some of the items that are rich sources of calcium:

  • Dairy products
  • Nuts
  • Tofu
  • Broccoli
  • Soya bean



You must have heard that a lack of vitamin D could lead to the occurrence of health problems,  Impaired growth, and muscle weakness. This is because vitamin D is known to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of bones. Vitamin D plays an important role in protecting the bones. The human body uses vitamin D to help transport calcium to the bones. Vitamin D plays an important role in assisting calcium absorption from food and ensuring the correct renewal and mineralization of bone tissue. It also promotes a healthy immune system and muscles. Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread and global problem. A large number of men who suffer from different bone problems are found to lack vitamin D in the body. An adequate amount of vitamin D in the body helps in having a healthy growth of bones in children and also, helps in preventing the occurrence of various bone disorders. Vitamin D is necessary to form and maintain strong bones.


Rich sources of vitamin D?

There are three ways to get vitamin D - sunlight, diet, and supplement.

  • Sunlight - Getting vitamin D through sunlight is one of the easiest ways. The skin can make vitamin D through ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
  • Diet - Vitamin D is naturally occurring in only a few foods such as beef liver, cheese, soy milk, and egg yolk.
  • Supplements - There are supplements available in the market to fulfill the requirement of vitamin D in the human body.

Some other important nutrients for healthy bones are as follows:

1. Magnesium - It is also important for bone mineralization. It is believed that approximately 60% of magnesium in the body is present in bones. Deficiency of this mineral could affect bone growth. Magnesium influences the metabolism of minerals indirectly through its role in ATP metabolism and as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes, and through its direct effects on bone quality by decreasing hydroxyapatite crystal size, thereby preventing larger, more perfect mineral crystals that result in the brittle bone.

2. Phosphorous - It is also an important bone-forming nutrient as it is required for the appropriate mineralization of the skeleton. A lack of phosphorus could lead to the impairment of bone mineralization.

3. Boron - Multiple studies have stated that boron plays a role in bone health through the formation of steroid hormones, and therefore, it may be involved in the prevention of calcium loss and bone demineralization. Prevention of calcium loss improves bone health and reduces the risk of developing a bone disorder.




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