Prostate diseases are quite common among men and it includes any disease that affects the prostate gland. It is an important gland in the male reproductive system and its function is to secrete a slightly alkaline fluid which is white or milky in color. Prostate diseases consist of three types:
The prostate is a small and vital gland which is present in the male reproductive system. The prostate is usually the size and shape of a walnut. The size of the prostate gland changes as men as they grow, and it is located below the bladder. It surrounds the urethra, which is a tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. Prostatitis is an infection or an inflammation that leads to pain and swelling. It is a serious condition that narrows the urethra and further leads to the blockage of the bladder neck. Urinary symptoms are common in this condition, such as burning sensation during urination, pain, and pressure. Prostatitis syndrome is classified as:
- Acute Prostatitis - It is an acute infection that occurs in the prostate gland and causes urinary tract symptoms and pelvic pain. When a prostate gland is infected with a germ then it is known as acute prostatitis. Patients who develop acute prostatitis often experience acute onset of dysuria, urinary frequency, urinary urgency, weak stream, and straining to urinate.
- Chronic Prostatitis - Chronic bacterial infection is the cause of the development of chronic prostatitis in the prostate gland. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a quite common condition and according to the researchers, 30% to 50% of men experience the symptoms of this disease once in their life. Some of the common problems that occur under this type of prostatitis include urogenital pain, lower urinary tract symptoms, psychological issues and sexual dysfunction.
- Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome - It is a serious health issue that impacts the quality of life and it is described as a pain in the pelvic area that lasts for six months or longer. Most of the patients who suffer from prostatitis experiences this type of prostatitis. It is diagnosed when no bacterias are found from the prostate in the urine or from prostate massage fluid despite the pain and urinary tract symptoms.
- Asymptomatic Prostatitis - In this type of prostatitis, patients do not experience any symptoms of prostatitis but bacterias and white blood cells are found.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is one of the most common conditions that usually occurs due to an advancing age and it is highly associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. It refers to the proliferation of smooth muscles and epithelial cells within the prostatic transition zone. It is a progressive condition which is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate gland. Advancing age is one of the most significant risk factors in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the occurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Although this disease is quite uncommon in men below the age of 40, it is one of the most common sexual disorder in men who age 50 or more. It is because, in aging males, a tissue remodeling process takes place in the prostate and the transition zone. It causes an occurrence of interference of the delicate balance of interacting growth factor signaling pathways, and this further leads to an increase in the prostate. Also, benign prostatic hyperplasia causes outflow obstruction, which is caused by increased prostate growth, large size, and an increased smooth muscle tone of the prostate. Dihydrotestosterone which is a metabolite of testosterone and is formed in the prostate cell by the breakdown of testosterone is said to be the main mediator of prostatic growth. Lower urinary tract syndrome is highly associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and it is characterized as symptoms that are related to problems of bladder, prostate, and urethra. Some of the symptoms that occur during lower urinary tract syndrome are urinary hesitancy, poor stream, straining, urgency in urination, nocturia, and terminal urinating dribbling.
3. Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that affects the quality of life of a man. It occurs when the cells which are present in the prostate gland become abnormal and begins to grow uncontrollably. According to various studies, Prostate cancer is a leading cause of non-skin cancer in the United States and is also the leading cause of cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer is of many types such as:
- Small cell carcinomas
- Neuroendocrine tumors
- Transitional cell carcinomas
Generally, the growth of the prostate cancer is slow but some prostate cancer can grow and spread quickly. There are treatments available for the prostate cancer but the treatment depends on the size and location of the tumor such as if the prostate cancer is growing slowly and is found at an early stage, then the doctor may recommend active surveillance. Also, there are some side effects of cancer treatment, including bone pain, weakness, incontinence, and sexual problems as well.