Bleeding disorders are rare disorders which are characterized by prolonged and increased bleeding due to abnormal coagulation. Normally there are three stages of coagulation:
1. The injured blood vessels constrict to reduce potential loss of blood.
2. The blood platelets adhere to the endothelial cells in the wall of the blood vessel at the site of vessel injury that is damaged, and platelets then begin to stick to each other and promotes the formation of a platelet plug.
3. There is an activation of plasma clotting proteins that causes the establishment of a mature clot which contains a stabilizing fibrin network.
When an individual suffers from bleeding disorder the first two stages functions normally, that is there is a formation of immature platelet plug but soon it breaks down and the bleeding begins.
List of some of the bleeding disorders:
Nosebleed, also known as epistaxis is one of the most common bleeding disorder which occur when a small blood vessel inside the lining of the nose burst and bleeds. There are many blood vessels lining the inside of the nose and these blood vessels which helps to keep the air an individual breathes warm and moist. These linings are very fragile and can be broken easily, resulting in bleeding.
The most common causes of nosebleed are dryness and nose picking, but there can be other causes such as allergies, infections, and chemical fumes. Allergies can cause itching that could lead to nose picking. Changes in a season can also trigger a nosebleed.
Thrombosis is a medical disease which is characterized by the development of blood clot within the vascular system in the body. Primarily, thrombosis can occur as a result of the combination of any three causes:
Thrombosis can occur due to damage to endothelium and there can be many causes of this damage. Inflammation of the blood vessels due to any bacteria could lead to the release of cytokine that stimulates the factors released by endothelial cells. This causes inflammation and contributes to thrombosis.
Problems with the normal flow of blood can also be responsible for the development of thrombosis. Abnormal flow of blood in the body could lead to disruption in the laminar flow of blood that brings the platelet in close contact with a vascular wall.
Hypercoagulability of the blood also contributes to the development of thrombosis.
Haemophilia is an inherited and lifelong bleeding disorder which occurs when one of the clotting factor proteins that play an important part in blood clots is missing or partially available. Patients having haemophilia experience bleeding into their joints and muscles, without any sign of an injury. Haemophilia is categorized into two types:
- Haemophilia A which occur due to the deficiency of factor 8.
- Haemophilia B which occur due to the deficiency of factor 9.
The severity of this disease can be classed as severe, moderate, and mild, it depends on how much a clotting factor is missing. It is a serious disorder as patients having this disease bleeds over and over again.
Menorrhagia is a menstrual disorder which occur in women and is characterized by heavy menstrual bleeding. It is not a rare disorder, many women of reproductive age experience heavy menstrual bleeding and its prevalence increases with advancing age. There are many factors that could result in menorrhagia including hormonal changes, hormonal imbalance, endometriosis, and uterine growths such as polyps and fibroids. The severity of this problem is strongly associated with the cause of it as it can range from mild to severe.
5. Postpartum Hemorrhage
Bleeding is normal after a woman gives birth to a baby. Postpartum hemorrhage is a condition in which a woman experiences excessive bleeding after giving birth to a child. This condition can be categorized into two types - primary and secondary.
- Primary postpartum hemorrhage is a condition in which a woman experiences heavy bleeding in the first 24 hours of giving birth.
- Secondary postpartum hemorrhage is a condition in which a woman experiences heavy bleeding between 12 hours and 12 weeks after giving the birth.
Heavy bleeding after giving birth to a baby can make a mother weaker.