ovulation pain

Ovulation Pain and Implications

Ovulation is that time in the female menstrual cycle that involves the release of an egg from one of the ovaries. Every month, it occurs in women until menopause or when a woman is pregnant.

Many a time, women experience ovulation pain and it is common but it is important to understand that one should never ignore severe ovulation pain. Severe ovulation pain can be due to some gynecological conditions. In medical terms, ovulation pain is also known as mittelschmerz or mid-cycle pain. Some of the symptoms that occur in ovulation pain include:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Pain occurring two weeks before the menstrual period.
  • Sharp pain or cramps
  • Pain that lasts for a long time, like for hours.

Also Read: Some Underlying Disorder Can Cause Menstrual Irregularity

The exact cause of ovulation pain is not known but researchers have suggested two theories that can be the cause of ovulation pain. Firstly, emerging follicle, hormones cause the ovaries to produce multiple follicles and each follicle contains an immature egg, but usually, only one follicle survives to maturity. Ovulation pain can be caused due to the expanding follicles stretching the membrane of the ovary. Secondly, when the egg is ruptured from a follicle, it causes bleeding, and sometimes the abdominal lining is irritated by the blood from the ruptured follicle and this can trigger pain.

Most often, ovulation pain is harmless, but sometimes prolonged and severe ovulation pain can be a sign of some serious health problem. Some of the diseases that can cause severe ovulation pain are as follows:

1. Salpingitis

Salpingitis is one of the common causes of female infertility and it is characterized by the inflammation of the fallopian tube. Salpingitis is caused by a bacterial infection and sexually transmitted diseases are the common cause of salpingitides, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. Salpingitis is associated with a wide range of symptoms such as lower abdominal direct tenderness, pain in the motion of the cervix or uterus, adnexal tenderness, abnormal vaginal discharge, frequent urination, and painful periods.

Some patients having acute salpingitis have a persistent chlamydial infection which can cause severe fallopian infection. It can lead to damage to the fallopian tube and results in infertility. Salpingitis also increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy, which further has an impact on infertility. Ectopic pregnancy is a condition in which the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus.

2. Endometriosis

According to the studies, endometriosis affects one in every ten women during their reproductive years. Endometriosis is a medical condition in which the type of tissue that forms the lining of the uterus is found to be outside the uterus which causes a chronic and inflammatory reaction. In medical terms, endometriosis is a  chronic condition that is characterized by the presence of extrauterine endometrial tissue. The presence of symptoms in women having endometriosis varies from person to person to a large extent as some women with endometriosis experience painful symptoms or infertility, whereas others have no symptoms at all.

Endometriosis is associated with bleeding, inflammation, and scarring and these symptoms can cause pain, especially during menstruation. Ovulation pain is common in women having endometriosis. Sometimes, endometriosis can cause infertility. Inflammation from endometriosis can cause damage to the egg and interfere with its movement through the fallopian tube or uterus.

3. Appendicitis

Appendicitis is one of the common condition treated by physicians and it is a condition which is characterized by the inflammation of the appendix. Abdominal pain is the most common symptom that occurs in patients having appendicitis. A pain that occurs in upper abdomen first and is then moving slowly to the right lower quadrant. Other symptoms of appendicitis may include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Constipation
  • Vomiting
  • Feeling of discomfort while passing stool.

It is generally believed that the obstruction of the appendiceal lumen and the occurrence of bacterial infection is the main cause of the development of this disease. Appendicitis requires medical treatment as if it progresses, it appendiceal edema and vascular congestion can become pronounced with the occurrence of multiple abscesses in the wall and purulent fluid on the serosal surface.

4. Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease

A chronic pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection which occurs in the reproductive organs of the woman's body. Each year, millions of women are diagnosed with this disease in the United States. The main cause of a chronic pelvic inflammatory disease is a sexually transmitted disease, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea. When the bacteria move from the vagina and cervix into the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes, it leads to the development of a chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. A chronic pelvic inflammatory disease is associated with multiple physical signs and symptoms and some of them include:

  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge
  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Ovulation pain
  • Fever

A chronic pelvic inflammatory disease is a serious disease and is associated with various long term complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and long-lasting pain.



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