Tobacco smoke is a mixture of thousands of chemicals and many of them are poisonous and causes major damage to the tissues of the body. Each cigarette delivers these chemicals quickly from the lungs into the blood and the arteries carry these chemicals to tissues in all parts of the body. When these chemicals are absorbed into the bloodstream and are carried to other organs of the body, they interfere with the functioning of the lungs and other parts of the body. A poison that is present in some of these chemicals disrupts the way the human body heals itself and with every single cigarette smoke attacks the body in its own way. Once the smoking has damaged the cells of the parts of the body, they grow uncontrollably and develops cancer. The cigarette smoking can also damage the DNA, cell’s instruction manual, which leads to cancer.
1. Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is one of the most diagnosed cancer worldwide. It is a malignant tumor that grows in an uncontrolled way in the lungs. Lung cancer is generally divided into two main types- small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer grows more quickly as compared to non-small cell lung cancer and is more likely to spread outside the lungs. Non-small cell lung cancer include different types of cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. There are various factors that could lead to the development of the lung cancer but cigarette smoking is considered to the largest single leading cause of lung cancer and it is responsible for almost 90% of the diagnosed cases. The risk of developing lung cancer is strongly related to the age a person starts smoking, how long they smoke and how many cigarettes they smoke every day. The chances of developing lung cancer increase with the total amount of smoke and the number of years an individual has smoked. The symptoms of lung cancer may vary from person to person and some of the symptoms that should not be ignored are a cough that gets worse, breathing problems, coughing with blood and chest pain.
2. Esophageal cancer
The esophagus, commonly known as food pipe is long extending from the upper esophageal sphincter to the lower esophageal sphincter. It transports the food from the mouth to the stomach. Esophageal cancer is of two types -esophageal adenocarcinoma that is present in the lower esophageal and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma that is present in the upper esophageal. Esophageal cancer is more common among men as compared to the women and there are various factors that contribute to the development of esophageal cancer such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, aging, obesity, consumption of alcohol and smoking. Smoking is considered to be one of the major contributors to the occurrence of esophageal cancer. The molecular mechanism by which cigarette smoking induces is postulated through the exposure of tobacco specific carcinogenic nitrosamines that initiates tumor and enhances tumor growth. Some of the symptoms that are present in people having esophageal cancer include trouble swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, chronic cough, bone pain and a hoarse voice.
3. Oropharyngeal Cancer
Oropharyngeal cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the tissues of the throat. The middle part of the throat that consists the base of the tongue, the tonsils, the soft palate and the walls of the pharynx is known as oropharynx. Smoking is the major risk factor of cancer in the mouth and it can adversely affect the health of the mouth and throat. According to the researchers, 80% of the total diagnosed cases of the mouth cancer occur in people who smoke a cigarette. They highly believe that people who smoke are nine times more likely to develop oropharyngeal cancer as compared to those who do not smoke. The possible signs that occur in a patient having oropharyngeal cancer are unexplained weight loss, sore throat for more than two weeks, a lump in the neck, a lump in the back of the throat, changes in the voice and pain in the ears.
4. Colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the colon and rectum. In the United States, it is one of leading cancer that has killed a large number of people. Colorectal cancer usually begins from precancerous polyps in the colon or rectum and over time, the polyps can turn into cancer. It is highly believed that people who smoke are at higher risk of developing colorectal cancer as compared to those who do not smoke. Various studies have provided pieces of evidence that prove that carcinogens and other chemicals that are present in the cigarette smoking are directly linked to the development of cancers. Symptoms that occur in colorectal cancer include rectal bleeding, weakness, abdominal pain, dark stools and unexplained weight loss.
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