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Empower Your Well-being: A Deep Dive into Understanding PMS

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Several changes that occur just before your period and cause discomfort are caused by Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS).

PMS causes several changes in behavior, mood, emotions, and physical health between ovulation and before the period.

It can interfere with your ability to function normally in daily life by causing extreme discomfort and distress.

There is a need for proper management and care of PMS symptoms to return to your normal life.

This article will dive deep into understanding PMS by discussing its causes, symptoms, and treatment.

What is Premenstrual Syndrome

The symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome affect almost 48% of women of reproductive age. 

Among these, 20% of women experience symptoms that are severe enough to interfere with their daily life.

Premenstrual Syndrome refers to the physical and psychological changes that occur in the luteal phase. It occurs in the second half of the menstrual cycle, i.e., after ovulation and before the start of the period.

Gaining a better understanding of the condition can help spread awareness and catch the condition early for better management.

To learn more about at which stage during the menstrual cycle does PMS start, read When Does PMS Start: Finding the Answer.  

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    What Causes Premenstrual Syndrome

    A woman distressedSource: doucefleur_From_Getty_images

    Scientific research has not been able to determine the exact cause of PMS. However, scientists have developed some theories regarding the possible causes. 

    Here are some of the possible causes of Premenstrual Syndrome:

    Hormonal changes: Estrogen and Progesterone levels fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle. Such fluctuations have been associated with the onset of PMS symptoms.

    Chemical changes in the brain: Changes in Estrogen and Progesterone levels can affect Serotonin levels. Low Serotonin has been associated with Anxiety and mood swings

    Existing mental health conditions: Pre-existing mental health conditions like Depression and Bipolar Disorder can raise the risk of experiencing PMS symptoms.

    Lifestyle Factors: Poor lifestyle habits like smoking, poor sleeping schedule, or poor eating habits can worsen PMS symptoms.

    Some women may also notice worsening PMS symptoms as they age. To learn more about how age affects this syndrome, read Truth Revealed: Does PMS Get Worse with Age?

    PMS Symptoms

    The symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome can vary from person to person. 

    However, this syndrome can cause some common emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms. 

    The symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome may include:

    • Anxiety
    • Anger or irritability
    • Cravings
    • Mood swings
    • Headache or Migraine related to PMS
    • Depression
    • Sleep issues like PMS insomnia
    • Acne
    • Fatigue
    • Cramps
    • Bloating
    • Constipation
    • Breast swelling or tenderness

    You should note that it is not necessary to experience all the symptoms of this condition to receive a PMS diagnosis.

    Consulting a medical professional may help you catch the condition and manage it properly.

    Sometimes Premenstrual Syndrome symptoms can occur without periods. To know why this happens, read PMS Symptoms But No Periods: What to Do? 

    Did you know?
    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), a common hormonal disorder, can also cause health issues like fatigue and cramps.

    How Long Does PMS Last

    Typically, Premenstrual Syndrome symptoms start 10 to 14 days before the start of the period. They go away at the start or during the period.

    However, the duration of these symptoms can vary for each person. Some may even experience the symptoms of this condition throughout the menstrual cycle. It is essential to seek medical advice in such cases.

    To explore more about when your symptoms of this syndrome will go away, read How Long Does PMS Last? Navigating the Duration.

    PMS Vs. PMDD

    Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of Premenstrual Syndrome that affects a minority of women.

    While mild PMS is common, PMDD affects approximately 3 to 8% of menstruating women.

    While your healthcare expert may diagnose Premenstrual Syndrome on the basis of your symptoms and timing, the diagnostic criteria for PMDD are strict.

    While a holistic approach involving lifestyle changes and medications may help treat both conditions, more focused strategies are needed to manage PMDD. 

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the difference between the conditions, read PMDD vs PMS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options.

    Premenstrual Syndrome Treatment

    stress managementSource: pixelshot
    Yoga for PMS

    A holistic approach involving medications and natural remedies for PMS may be the best course of treatment for this Syndrome.

    PMS treatment usually focuses on addressing the underlying hormonal imbalances to help you return to your normal life. The treatment may involve:

    • PMS medications like Danazol and Spironolactone are commonly recommended to address hormonal imbalances and manage symptoms like bloating
    • Antidepressants like SSRIs are effective in reducing psychological PMS symptoms like anger and are often used in the first line of treatment
    • Hormonal birth control may also be suitable for women who are not planning to get pregnant
    • Exercise and diet can also improve hormonal balance and improve the symptoms of this condition
    • Practising stress management techniques like yoga, meditation, and deep breathing exercises may also be helpful to relieve cramps and headaches

    It is essential to seek medical advice if your symptoms are severe or disruptive. You should also consult a doctor before taking any medications.

    Danazol tablets are not suitable for pregnant women as they can damage the fetus and cause birth defects.


    Premenstrual Syndrome is a real condition affecting a large number of women of reproductive age.

    Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle are responsible for causing many PMS symptoms like acne, fatigue, cravings,constipation, etc.

    Generally, this syndrome starts 10 to 14 days before the period and lasts until the start or a few days during the period.

    A small number of women may also experience a more severe form of Premenstrual Syndrome called PMDD. This is a serious condition that can affect your ability to function normally.

    It is essential to keep check of PMS symptoms and seek medical help if they worsen or persist for a long period.

    Your doctor may recommend medications along with lifestyle changes to manage the condition.

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    Frequently Asked Questions

    Can teenagers experience Premenstrual Syndrome?

    Yes, teenage girls can experience Premenstrual Syndrome as their hormones begin to regulate during puberty. However, symptoms may vary compared to adult women.

    Is there a specific diet to manage Premenstrual Syndrome symptoms?

    While there’s no specific diet, a balanced and nutritious diet, rich in vitamins and minerals, can help alleviate PMS symptoms.
    Additionally, consulting a doctor for proper treatment is recommended.

    Does Premenstrual Syndrome affect fertility?

    Premenstrual Syndrome itself does not affect fertility. However, addressing any underlying hormonal imbalances contributing to PMS may positively impact reproductive health.

    Can Premenstrual Syndrome be a sign of a more serious health issue?

    In most cases, Premenstrual Syndrome is a normal part of the menstrual cycle. 
    However, persistent or severe symptoms may suggest the need for a medical evaluation to rule out underlying health issues.

    Can Premenstrual Syndrome affect sexual desire?

    Yes, some women may experience changes in libido or sexual desire during the premenstrual phase.
    Women may experience reduced sexual desire and satisfaction due to Premenstrual Syndrome.

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    Photo of author Janet Fudge
    Janet Fudge is a highly skilled and experienced pharmacologist who serves as a contributing writer for With a strong academic background from a premier US University and a passion for helping others, Janet has become a trusted voice in the pharmaceutical world. After completing her Doctor of Pharmacy degree, Janet embarked on a successful career in the pharmaceutical industry, working with various clients, including hospitals, retail pharmacies, and drug manufacturers. Her in-depth knowledge of pharmacology and dedication to patient-centered care has led her to excel in her field. As a writer for, Janet uses her wealth of expertise to provide readers with accurate, reliable, and up-to-date information on various topics related to medicine and healthcare. Her engaging writing style and ability to break down complex topics into easily digestible content make her a valuable resource for healthcare professionals and the general public.
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