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Exploring Causes of Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding in Women

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Prolonged menstrual bleeding, medically known as Menorrhagia, is a common concern among women or Assigned Females at Birth (AFAB). It can highly affect the quality of one’s life and well-being.

This condition often refers to menstrual bleeding lasting longer than seven days. The bleeding is usually heavier than normal menstrual flow.

Apart from prolonged menstrual bleeding or periods, individuals can experience several other symptoms, like the passing of blood clots and intense cramps. One can also experience Anemia due to the heavy and prolonged bleeding.

Learning about the causes of prolonged menstrual bleeding is important for effective management and treatment. This can also help avoid possible health risks.

Let’s proceed further with this article and discuss the possible causes of Menorrhagia in detail.

Causes of Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding

There are several causes of prolonged Menstrual Bleeding, ranging from hormonal problems to underlying health conditions.

Some of the most common causes of this condition include hormonal imbalance, Uterine Fibroids, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), and Endometrial and blood disorders.

Others may also experience it due to certain medications and medical procedures. These causes usually vary for individuals and need a proper diagnosis.

This section will provide a detailed discussion of the causes of Menorrhagia.

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  • Hormonal Imbalance

    One of the main causes of prolonged menstrual flow is hormonal imbalance. According to research, this period is marked by fluctuations in Estrogen and Progesterone.

    When hormonal levels are abnormal, it can disrupt regular ovulation. This can increase the thickness of the uterine lining.

    Thus, when the menstruation eventually occurs, the flow increases, resulting in prolonged menstruation. 

    Individuals can also experience prolonged menstrual bleeding during Perimenopause and with conditions like Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and thyroid disorders. These often lead to irregular ovulation, increasing the menstrual flow.

    It is vital to note that PCOS bleeding can differ for every person, and its symptoms range widely. If you want to gain more insights, read PCOS Bleeding: Causes, Symptoms, and Effective Management.

    Uterine Fibroids or Polyps

    Uterine Fibroids are non-cancerous growths of the uterus. These are a common cause of Menorrhagia, particularly in women approaching Menopause

    They often lead to pain and heavy menstrual bleeding. Likewise, women with Polyps can also notice increased blood flow during menstruation.

    Polyps are also non-cancerous tissue growth in different parts of the body. When it grows in the uterus, it results in heavy blood flow.

    Additional Fact:
    Women can also experience abnormal bleeding in cases of miscarriage or Ectopic Pregnancy (growth of fertilized egg outside the uterus). Some of the other causes of prolonged light menstrual bleeding include Stress and Obesity.

    Endometrial and Blood Disorders

    endometrial written on a blue backgroundSource: getty_images
    Endometrial disorders

    Endometrial disorders, such as Endometriosis and Adenomyosis, can also lead to prolonged menstrual bleeding. Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of it, causing irregular or heavy bleeding.

    In Adenomyosis, tissue growth in the uterus thickens the uterine lining. This can lead to high blood flow and sometimes cause blood clots during menstruation.

    Additionally, certain inherited blood disorders, like Von Willebrand Disease and platelet disorders, can interfere with normal blood clotting, resulting in heavy menstrual flow.

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    PID is an infection of the female reproductive organs. It is usually caused by Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs).

    PID can result in inflammation and scarring of the reproductive organs, producing several symptoms. These PID symptoms include irregular menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility. 

    Did you know that different causes of PID call for distinct treatments? To gain more insights on these treatment options, read Exploring Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Treatments.

    If you are experiencing prolonged menstrual flow regularly, it is best to consult your doctor immediately. This heavy flow can sometimes be a sign of cancer in the uterus or cervix and can need immediate medical attention.

    Medications and Medical Procedures

    Certain anticoagulants or anti-inflammatory medications can affect the normal menstrual cycle and contribute to prolonged bleeding in women. 

    Besides these medicines, other medications like aspirin and blood thinners can also result in irregularity of flow and cause prolonged bleeding. According to a study, abnormal uterine bleeding is a common side effect of hormonal contraceptives.

    Similarly, medical procedures like Intrauterine Device (IUD) insertion or surgical interventions may lead to prolonged bleeding as a side effect.


    It is essential to understand the causes of prolonged menstrual bleeding since it affects the entire well-being of women. Two of the most common causes of heavy menstrual flow include hormonal imbalance and irregular ovulation.

    Some women may also experience this condition due to Uterine Fibroids, Polyps, Endometriosis, or Adenomyosis. Yet, this cause may vary for every individual.

    Additionally, blood disorders and PID may also cause irregularities in menstrual bleeding patterns. In severe cases, one may notice medications like anticoagulants and anti-inflammators causing heavy blood flow.

    As a side effect, women who use hormonal contraceptives and IUDs may also notice excessive bleeding. It is best to consult a doctor to get a proper diagnosis of the underlying treatment in order to receive proper management.

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    Frequently Asked Questions

    Can pregnancy cause prolonged menstrual bleeding?

    No, pregnancy usually does not cause prolonged menstrual bleeding. Yet, bleeding during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, can occur and may appear as menstrual bleeding.
    One should consult an expert immediately if they experience any bleeding during pregnancy to avoid further complications.

    What are the diagnostic methods for prolonged menstrual bleeding?

    There are several diagnostic methods for prolonged menstrual bleeding. It includes medical history assessment, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.
    In some cases, doctors may suggest procedures like endometrial biopsy. These methods can help identify the causes of prolonged menstruation.

    How do you treat prolonged menstrual bleeding?

    Treating prolonged menstrual bleeding depends on the underlying cause and individual factors. Some of these treatment options include hormonal therapy, Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), and surgical interventions.
    Sometimes, lifestyle modifications and complementary therapies can also help with the management.

    Is there any way to prevent menstrual bleeding for prolonged periods?

    Yes, certain steps can prevent prolonged menstrual bleeding. These include maintaining a proper lifestyle, managing Stress, and addressing underlying conditions. 
    Experts may also suggest to stay under regular gynecological check-ups. This can ensure timely treatment of menstrual irregularities and one can easily minimize the risk.

    What are the complications of untreated, prolonged menstrual bleeding?

    Untreated and prolonged menstrual bleeding can lead to several complications, including Anemia due to heavy menstruation, fatigue, and weakness. 
    It may worsen underlying conditions such as Uterine Fibroids or Polyps, potentially impacting fertility and overall reproductive health.

    Cheap Medicine Shop only refers to credible, authoritative sources for our content. If you’re curious about how we ensure the integrity of our content, we encourage you to read our Content Information Policy.

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    Photo of author Janet Fudge
    Janet Fudge is a highly skilled and experienced pharmacologist who serves as a contributing writer for With a strong academic background from a premier US University and a passion for helping others, Janet has become a trusted voice in the pharmaceutical world. After completing her Doctor of Pharmacy degree, Janet embarked on a successful career in the pharmaceutical industry, working with various clients, including hospitals, retail pharmacies, and drug manufacturers. Her in-depth knowledge of pharmacology and dedication to patient-centered care has led her to excel in her field. As a writer for, Janet uses her wealth of expertise to provide readers with accurate, reliable, and up-to-date information on various topics related to medicine and healthcare. Her engaging writing style and ability to break down complex topics into easily digestible content make her a valuable resource for healthcare professionals and the general public.
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