Anthelmintic & Anti-worm

Anthelmintic & Anti-worm

Anthelmintic and Anti-Worm

Anthelmintics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing signifiRead more...

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Anthelmintic and Anti-Worm

Anthelmintics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. They may also be called vermifuges (those that stun) or vermicides (those that kill). Anthelmintics are used to treat people who are infected by helminths, a condition called helminthiasis. These drugs are also used to treat infected animals.

What Is Helminthiasis

Helminthiasis (plural helminthiases), also known as worm infection, is any macro parasitic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms, known as helminths. There are numerous species of these parasites, which are broadly classified into tapeworms, flukes, and roundworms. They often live in the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts, but they may also burrow into other organs, where they induce physiological damage.

  • Roundworms, or nematodes (Necator atepsapis or Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris, lumbricoides).
  • Tapeworms (cestodes).
  • Flatworms (flukes, trematodes).
  • Typically, worms live in the gastrointestinal tract but can be also found in the liver or other organs.

Causes Of Helminthiasis

  1. The helminths are transmitted to the host (final) in several ways and they are such as Contaminated Fruits, Vegetables that we without proper washing.

  2. Contaminated Water that we take without filtering or purifying.

  3. Unhygienic Condition of own rooms, School, Society, Playground, Community Gathering places, Markets, Public Toilets, etc.

  4. Poor Sanitation (Commonly seen in Tropical & Subtropical poor community) where people used to pass stool under the sky or in very dirty places.

  5. Poor disposal of contaminated stool and waste products very common in developing countries.

  6. Huge gathering with common poor sanitation facilities.

  7. Common or Public Sanitation without proper cleaning methods.

Symptoms Of Helminthiasis

Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, enlarged liver and spleen, cough, malabsorption, anemia bowel obstruction, dehydration, itchy skin, malaise, and gastrointestinal inflammation among others

Adverse Effects On Body

  • Hookworm disease is a common worm infestation in the developing world caused by Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus. The illness leads to anemia and malnutrition.

  • Dracunculiasis is caused by the guinea worm or Dracunculus medinensis, which is transmitted through contaminated water. It lies burrowed within the skin and causes severe inflammatory reactions.

  • Loiasis or African eye worm disease is caused by the filaria Loa loa worm, which is contracted through Deer fly or Mango fly bites. The adult worms move through subcutaneous tissue towards the conjunctiva of the eye. The illness causes red, itchy swellings in the skin referred to as Calabar swellings.

  • Cysticercosis is caused by the pork tapeworm or Taenia solium. Symptoms often do not present for years, but eventually, painless bumps develop in the skin and muscles or cause neurological problems.

  • Echinococcosis is caused by Echinococcus tapeworms. The liver is usually affected first, followed by the lungs and brain. Liver disease may cause abdominal pain and jaundice while lung disease leads to breathlessness and coughing.

Preventive Measures

  • Provision and use of safe and adequate water supply

  • Improvement of environmental sanitation

  • Practicing good sanitation and hygiene habits

  • Building and using sanitary latrine for safe disposal of human excreta

  • Washing hands with soap before eating or feeding children and after defecation

  • Washing and cooking vegetables thoroughly

  • Wear shoes, especially in areas that are likely to be contaminated with feces

  • Use good sanitation practice when eating and preparing food: Wash hands and food in clean water, peel fruit, and vegetables, or cook foods

  • Create designated places to go to the bathroom. ¬†Ideally, these will be permanent structures, but they should not be close enough to water sources to contaminate the water

  • Wearing tight underpants both day and night. Change them daily

  • Avoid scratching the area around the buttocks

  • Wash hands and fingernails with soap often during the day, especially before eating and after using the toilet

  • Avoid dry sweeping; that may stir up dust

  • Clean the bedroom floor by vacuuming or damp mopping for several days after treatment

  • Wash (not shake) all bedding and pajamas after treatment

  • When traveling, use bottled water and avoid raw vegetables unless you can peel and wash them yourself

  • Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat such as pork, beef, and fish

Common Medications

There are several medicines that may be used to treat worm infections - they are sometimes called anthelmintics. Other medicines that may be prescribed for the various types of worm infections include:

  • Levamisole

  • Niclosamide

  • Praziquantel

  • Albendazole

  • Diethylcarbamazine

  • Ivermectin

  • Tiabendazole


  • Diagnosing helminthiasis is the analysis of feces, which are as much as part of the worms and their larvae and eggs. Analysis on helminthiasis preferably repeated several times since One study is not always significant.

  • Blood test is also used for the diagnosis of helminthiasis. If helminthiasis infection occurred recently in the blood will be increased eosinophils.

  • A typical indicator for diagnosing helminthiasis blood test is the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies to a particular type of worms.

Expected Side Effects

  • Headache

  • Diarrhoea

  • Dizziness

  • Drowsiness

  • Malaise

  • Abdominal discomfort

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting